Blood Pressure, Hypertension and Leading Risk Factors for Men in 2019
According to the new research, hypertension is one of leading risk factors that cause cardiovascular disorder in Canadian men. About 84% of men are aware that they have hypertension or any problems with blood pressure. Women get hypertension 10–15 years later than men, but their prognosis is usually worse, which is associated with older age of onset and the presence of a greater number of comorbidities. In addition, a female heart is smaller than a male heart; their coronary arteries are narrower.
Electrocardiogram tests are recording during physical exertion in women in almost half of the cases give false positive results. Women react to the use of most hypertension medications better than men do. That is why healthcare providers must more thoroughly diagnose men. But being a woman at this points has its advantages. The female body responds much better to lifestyle changes. For example, on the restriction of salt in the diet: women who have hypertension are sensitive to salt. The reasons for the development of hypertension can also be heredity, increased body weight, a sedentary lifestyle, alcoholic beverages, eating large amounts of salt for food, unbalanced nutrition and smoking.
Why is it necessary to treat hypertension?
This “silent killer” sometimes leads to severe complications, such as strokes and heart attacks. Fortunately, today, hypertension is not a sentence, it can and should be treated, but the main thing is not to try to pretend that this problem does not exist.
To choose the right therapy and protect yourself against such terrible complications, it is necessary to consult a physician or cardiologist in time, get qualified advice, undergo the necessary laboratory and instrumental examinations to clarify the extent and stage of the disease. Currently, various modern therapies and diagnostic methods are used to treat hypertension. These include meds for blood pressure control, the use of ACE inhibitors, calcium inhibitors, cardio-selective B-blockers, and metabolic drugs.
Men who have at first encountered high blood pressure often prefer to blame it for stress, fatigue or accidental coincidence. Even the emerging regularity in the abnormally high readings of the tonometer sometimes does not cause alarm. But, in fact, in cardiology, there are clear criteria by which the diagnosis of “arterial hypertension” is established.
WHO has adopted a unified classification of blood pressure. Arterial hypertension can be primary, or essential, developing as a result of environmental or genetic causes, or secondary, having multiple etiology. Secondary hypertension develops, as a rule, due to diseases of the kidneys, blood vessels, endocrine pathology and other causes. Primary hypertension is observed in 90–95% of cases, and the share of secondary is only 2–10%.
As a preventive measure, one should not forget about a healthy lifestyle, walking, playing sports and fitness, swimming pool. Perfectly helps to recover from therapy and spa treatment. The main thing is not to miss the problem, but as soon as possible contact a specialist (general practitioner or cardiologist) and begin treatment of arterial hypertension in the initial stages. Then in the future, you will not have to fight with illnesses that are more serious. If necessary, the doctor may also prescribe antihypertensive drugs. If risk factors are eliminated, and high blood pressure continues to be troubling, undergo a medical examination: often the cause of hypertension lies in kidney, thyroid, heart disease or brain injuries.
Effective hypertension drugs for men that are available in Canadian pharmacies
The WHO and other authoritative organizations in their recommendations emphasize that in case of arterial hypertension, immediate medical therapy is not always required. First of all, a doctor must evaluate the patient’s condition, analyze the history and determine to which risk group the particular patient belongs: low, medium, high or very high.
Worldwide, six major groups of drugs for high blood pressure are used:
- beta blockers;
- calcium channel blockers;
- ACE inhibitors;
- angiotensin II receptor blockers;
- alpha blockers;
According to the WHO recommendations from 1999, there is no reliable evidence that antihypertensive drugs differ in effectiveness. However, between them there are differences in the safety profile and side effects. In addition, only some drugs in randomized controlled studies have shown that they reduce the risk of cardiovascular accidents.
Diuretics is one of the most valuable groups of antihypertensive drugs. They are inexpensive, effective and well tolerated in low doses. In addition, their ability to prevent cardiovascular accidents has been proven. Diuretics most effectively reduce pressure in combination with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, as well as with calcium channel blockers. The main side effects are hypokalemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia.
Beta blockers. Beta-adrenoreceptor blockers/agonists are safe, economical and effective anti-hypertensive meds, which can be used both as monotherapy and in combination with diuretics, calcium antagonists and alpha-blockers. The main side effects are erectile dysfunction, fatigue.
Calcium channel blockers. All CCBs are capable of controlling pressure and are well tolerated. According to the results of a large meta-analysis, BPC reduces the risk of heart failure by 20% compared with placebo. Typical side effects are tachycardia, facial flushing, ankle swelling and constipation.
ACE inhibitors. These meds effectively reduce pressure. In addition, they have been proven to reduce the incidence and mortality from heart failure . The most common side effect of an ACE inhibitor is a dry cough that is not dependent on dosage. ACE inhibitors should not be prescribed during pregnancy, especially in the second and third trimester due to the negative impact on the development of the fetus.
Angiotensin receptor blockers. The most modern group of antihypertensive drugs – angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) – has many common features with ACE inhibitors, including particular importance in patients with heart failure. However, there is still no reliable evidence of the effect of the drugs of this group on the cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension. ARBs are well tolerated and their obvious advantage over ACE inhibitors is the absence of cough as a side effect. ARBs should not be taken during pregnancy.
Alpha blockers are also safe and effective, but there is no evidence of their effect on cardiovascular risk. The main side effect of this group of drugs is postural hypotension that is especially dangerous for elderly men.
Most medications listed above are recommended for a peculiar combinatory treatment. Only a healthcare specialist may prescribe a combo of prescribed drugs for the effective treatment of hypertension in men of Canada.